New species of Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880

October 23, 2003
From: Dr Shireen Fahey

Greetings Bill,
Here is some background information on a revision of the dorid genus Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880 that Terry Gosliner and I have just published. The publication (and color photos) can be downloaded at:

Revision of the genera Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880 and Carminodoris Bergh, 1889

Fahey & Gosliner recently revised the two genera Hoplodoris and Carminodoris due to uncertainty of the phylogenetic status of these two genera. The uncertainty was due to the lack of distinguishing generic features and lack of complete anatomical descriptions. Further anatomical details were revealed during the examination of specimens from the type localities. Analyses indicate that the genus Carminodoris Bergh, 1889 is a junior synonym of Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880. There are few morphological characters that can be used to justify two distinct genera. We reognise the following species:

Hoplodoris bifurcata (Baba, 1993).
Carminodoris nodulosa from Hawaii and C. bifurcata from Okinawa appear to be the same species and should be called Hoplodoris bifurcata (Baba, 1993).
Hoplodoris grandiflora (Pease, 1860).
Hoplodoris desmoparypha Bergh, 1880, Carminodoris mauritiana Bergh, 1880 and C. grandiflora (Pease, 1860) are conspecific and should be named Hoplodoris grandiflora (Pease, 1860).
Hoplodoris nodulosa (Angas, 1864)
Hoplodoris nodulosa (Angas, 1864) and H. novaezelandiae (Bergh, 1904) appear to be conspecific.
Hoplodoris estrelyado (Gosliner and Behrens, 1998)
Hoplodoris estrelyado (Gosliner and Behrens, 1998) should be retained as valid species.
Hoplodoris armata (Baba, 1993)
Carminodoris armata Baba, 1993 is a synonym of Hoplodoris armata.
Hoplodoris flammea Fahey & Gosliner, 2003 [new species]
Hoplodoris bramale Fahey & Gosliner, 2003 [new species]

Thus, there are seven valid species in the genus Hoplodoris: H. armata, H. bifurcata, H. bramale, H. estrelyado, H. flammea, H. grandiflora and H. nodulosa.

Although the genus Discodoris is a closely related taxon, the genus Geitodoris is more closely related to Hoplodoris. Important diagnostic morphological characters of Hoplodoris that have been inherited from a common ancestor include penial hooks and denticulate radular teeth. Newly acquired morphological characters of Hoplodoris species include an accessory gland with a spine and vaginal armament.

• Fahey, S. J. & Gosliner, T. M. (2003) Mistaken identities: On the Discodorididae genera Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880 and Carminodoris Bergh, 1889 (Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 54(10): 169-208.

Shireen Fahey

Fahey, S.J., 2003 (Oct 23) New species of Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from

Thanks Shireen,
I have added your accounts of the two new species as separate messages, and have added some information and photos from your paper of the other species, so your concept of each species is clear.
Best wishes
Bill Rudman

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