Lifecycle of Philine auriformis

September 16, 2000
From: Michelle Chow

Hi Dr. Rudman
I am finally finishing up my thesis on the introduced Philine in California. However I was wondering if you could provide a reference or some information on Philine auriformis. My understanding and observations lead me to think that P. auriformis is an annual. Unfortunately, I have searched through all my literature and can't find anyone who states the above fact.
Any suggestions?

P.S. Note my changed email address

Chow, M., 2000 (Sep 16) Lifecycle of Philine auriformis. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from

Dear Michelle,
Glad to hear your thesis is nearing completion. I look forward to you publishing your results. Concerning the life span of P. auriformis. I know of no study on its life history. We assume that many of these animals are annuals but it's going to take a lot of time to prove it. Morton & Chiu's (1990) paper on P. orientalis summarise the very little factual information we have on Philine life span which is not much. Anything you can add wil be very welcome.

Morton, B. & Chiu, S.T., 1990. The diet, prey size and consumption of Philine orientalis (Opisthobranchia: Philinidae) in Hong Kong. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 56: 289-299.

Sorry I can't help more,
Best wishes,
Bill Rudman.

Rudman, W.B., 2000 (Sep 16). Comment on Lifecycle of Philine auriformis by Michelle Chow . [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from


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