Re: Philine in California

March 15, 1999
From: Allison Carver

Unfortunately, things have been going very slowly for me here. My main problem is collecting, because I can hitch rides on our research boats only when they go out, and when my school and work schedules allow it -- and I've been swamped in school lately. I have noticed that Philine seems to finally have moved inside the harbors: whereas, up to this winter, I found Philine only outside the harbor breakwaters, recently I have been finding one or two adults and many, many juveniles inside the harbor. I have asked Michelle Chow for advice on preservation for SEM (for identification purposes), but what I'd really like is any information anyone might have on the ecology of the four species of Philine that Michelle and Terry Gosliner have identified, because my ultimate goal is to assess any impacts on the native mollusc populations.
Any ideas?

Allison Carver

Carver, A., 1999 (Mar 15) Re: Philine in California. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from

Dear Allison,
Thanks for keeping in touch. The only reference I know of is the one I listed in an earlier message about Philine orientalis in Hong Kong.
Best wishes,
Bill Rudman.

Rudman, W.B., 1999 (Mar 15). Comment on Re: Philine in California by Allison Carver. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from


Philine spp.

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