Philine angasi
(Crosse & Fischer, 1865)

Family: Philinidae


Common in southern Australia and northern New Zealand.


Locality:  Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, February 1985. Photo: Bill Rudman.

The opaque white calcareous gizzard plates can be seen in the centre of the body. The shell is internal but its size and shape can be seen in the posterior half of the body where it encloses the viscera. Philine angasi and P. aperta are two of a group of species in which the body has become solid, muscular and wedge-shaped, presumably for burrowing through soft sediments.

See message below [#176 ] for information on its anatomy and biology.

  • Rudman, W.B., 1970. A revision of the genus Philine in New Zealand with descriptions of two new species (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia 2(1): 23-34.
  • Rudman, W.B., 1972a. Structure and functioning of the gut in the Bullomorpha. (Opisthobranchia) Part 3. Philinidae. Journal of Natural History 6(4): 459-74.
  • Rudman, W.B., 1972b. The genus Philine (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda). Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 40(3): 171-87.
Authorship details
Rudman, W.B., 1998 (July 30) Philine angasi (Crosse & Fischer, 1865). [In] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from

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