Here is a list of published work on animals, mainly nudibranch opisthobranchs, which have evolved symbiotic relationships with zooxanthellae. Usually the zooxanthellae have been obtained by the nudibranch when they have eaten the original animal host of the zooxanthellae, which is usually a cnidarian. The papers cover all aspects of the symbiosis, from morphological changes in the animal to physiological changes in the zooxanthellae Any additional references are welcome.
• Hoegh-Guldberg,I.O. & Hinde,R. (1986) Studies on a nudibranch that contains zooxanthellae 1. Photosynthesis, respiration and the translocation of newly fixed carbon by zooxanthellae in Pteraeolidia ianthina. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B, 228: 493-509.
• Hoegh-Guldberg,I.O., Hinde, R. & Muscatine, L. (1986) Studies on a nudibranch that contains zooxanthellae 2. Contribution of zooxanthellae to animal respiration (CZAR) in Pteraeolidia ianthina with high and low densities of zooxanthellae. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B, 228: 511-521.
• Kempf, S.C. 1984. Symbiosis between the zooxanthellae Symbiodinium microadriaticum and four species of nudibranchs. Biol. Bull. 166: 110-126.
• McFarland,FK. & Muller-Parker, G. (1993) Photosynthesis and retention of zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae within the aeolid nudibranch Aeolidia papillosa. Biological Bulletin, 184: 223-229.
• Rudman, W.B. (1981a) Further studies on the anatomy and ecology of opisthobranch molluscs feeding on the scleractinian coral Porites. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 71: 373-412.
• Rudman, W.B. (1981b) The anatomy and biology of alcyonarian feeding aeolid opisthobranch molluscs and their development of symbiosis with zooxanthellae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 72: 219-262.
• Rudman, W.B. (1981c) Polyp mimicry in a new species of aeolid nudibranch mollusc. Journal of Zoology, London, 193: 421-427.
• Rudman, W.B. (1982a) The taxonomy and biology of further aeolidacean and arminacean nudibranch molluscs with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 147-196.
• Rudman, W.B. (1982b) A new species of Phestilla; the first record of a corallivorous aeolid nudibranch from tropical America. Journal of Zoology, London, 198: 465-471.
• Rudman, W.B. (1986c) Nudibranchs: Nature's thieves. Australian Natural History 22(1): 2-6.
• Rudman, W.B. (1987c) Solar-powered Animals. Natural History 96(10): 50-53.
* Rudman, W.B. (1991) Further studies on the taxonomy and biology of the octocoral-feeding genus Phyllodesmium Ehrenberg, 1831 (Nudibranchia: Aeolidoidea). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 57(2): 167-203.
Rudman, W.B., 1998 (October 11) Zooxanthellae symbiosis . [In] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/factsheet/zooxref