April 21, 1998
From: P.M. Johnson
Dear Dr. Rudman,
Thank you very much for your quick reply to my questions. Thanks also for the reference list, there was one (Fiorito et. al., 1985) that I was not aware of and that could be very helpful to me. There is another reference that you might want to add to the list:
Nolen, T.G.; Johnson, P.M.; Kicklighter, C.E.; Capo, T. (1995): Ink secretion by the marine snail Aplysia californica enhances its ability to escape from a natural predator. J. Comp. Physiol. A 176, 239-254.
This paper came out of my undergraduate senior thesis at the University of Miami, so I can send you a reprint if you like.
I have several of your papers on opisthobranchs, in most of which you discuss the various mantle glands of different species. It's been suggested by several authors that the ink gland of the Aplysiomorpha was derived from the hypobranchial gland. I was wondering what you're thoughts are on this and also if you know of any possible precursors to the opaline gland as well.
Thanks again for your help,
firstname.lastname@example.orgJohnson, P.M., 1998 (Apr 21) Re: Sea Hares - attack & defence. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/143
It is very hard to find evidence to show whether mantle cavity organs in one group are homologous (that is have the same evolutionary origin) with organs in other less closely related groups. There has been a burst of activity in studying the evolutionary relationship of gastropod molluscs over the last decade and although this work has been a great step forward it also shows us how much we still have to learn. A good reference to this work is W.F.Ponder & D.R.Lindberg, 1997. Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society: 119, 83-265. We can make guesses about the origins of these glands, and there are similar glands in other primitive opisthobranchs such as the aglajiids, but it is just as likely that they evolved independently in each evolutionary line. To me, of greater interest is what is the function of these organs? and why do some species of Aplysia not have a purple gland? ...Bill Rudman.Rudman, W.B., 1998 (Apr 21). Comment on Re: Sea Hares - attack & defence by P.M. Johnson. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/143
Is Sea Hare ink poisonous to fish?
From: Nicole Chilson, January 15, 2007
How to make dye from the Sea Hare ink.
From: Ralph Bowen, August 3, 2006
Dolabrifera dolabrifera - Dissection diagram for ink gland?
From: Kathryn Clark, June 17, 2006
Aplysia californica - ink
From: Malvina Papanastasiou, March 23, 2006
Separating Ink Components of Aplysia dactylometa?
From: Scott Schwartz, March 6, 2006
Re: Inking in Aplysia
From: lorrie creach, October 24, 2005
Pharmacokinetic peptides in Dolabella auricularia
From: Sallie Dugan, July 29, 2004
Sea Hare color purple
From: Patricia, October 24, 2003
Allergic to Sea Hare Ink?
From: Martin Masters, August 13, 2003
Do frightened Aplysia secrete ink involuntarily?
From: Dr. Stephen Hoskins, September 24, 2002
Re: Inking in Aplysia
From: Edwin Cruz-Rivera, June 27, 2002
Re: Inking in Aplysia
From: Dr.Stephen R Hoskins, June 26, 2002
Re: Effect of secretions on Aplysia
From: Cathryn Clarke, June 26, 2002
Effect of secretions on Aplysia
From: Stephen Hoskins, June 22, 2002
Ink Glands in Octopus and Sea Hares
From: Nadine Schoene, March 21, 2002
Sea Hares and Inking
From: Melanie, March 22, 2001
Sea Hare Self Defense
From: Tina Paget, February 21, 2001
Siphon Withdrawal Reflex in Sea Hares
From: Steve Potts, December 15, 2000
From: Mary Townsend, August 28, 2000
Turtles eating Sea Hares
From: Michael D. Miller, May 5, 2000
What Preys on Sea Hares?
From: Claire, March 7, 2000
Slugs that squirt ink
From: Orso Angulo Campillo, November 25, 1999
A new review of Sea Hare defence mechanisms
From: Bill Rudman., August 14, 1999
Re: Opaline Gland
From: Assaf Zvuloni , June 28, 1999
Re: Sea Hares - attack and defence
From: Assaf Zvuloni, June 23, 1999
Sea Hares - chemical defence
From: Tom Nolen, February 22, 1999
palatability of sea hares: personal experience
From: Patrick Krug, Ph.D., September 9, 1998
Re: Sea Hares - attack & defence
From: Conxita Avila, May 19, 1998
Sea Hares - attack & defence
From: P.M. Johnson, April 17, 1998