Erwin Koehler's N. mullineri

June 11, 2002
From: Nishina Masayoshi

Dear Bill,
Nembrotha lineolata, N.livingstonei, N.rutilans and N. mullineri are all similar for me. I thought the one of distinctive external feature is the white patch between the rhinophores. Especially N.livingstonei and N. mullineri are similar. But N. livingstonei has the cross shaped patch between the rhinophores. Is this a sure way to identification?

Erwin Koehler's N. mullineri from Negros, Philippines, looks almost like N. mullineri but has no patch. So the animal may be something unusual type as N. mullineri or looks something special for me. I've never seen such a dark N. mullineri before.

The attached photos are both photographed at Kungkungan Bay in the Lembeh Straits of Indonesia.
N.livingstonei [upper]
21 Nov, 2001, Length: 30mm
N. mullineri [lower]
21 Nov, 2001, Length: 40mm
Photos by N. Chikako

Best Regards,
Nishina Masayoshi

Masayoshi, N., 2002 (Jun 11) Erwin Koehler's N. mullineri. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from

Dear Nishina,
Thanks for these photos. I have added some more from Erwin today which help clarify the variation in N. mullineri. I must admit that the species you mention are a bit confusing and I am afraid there is not a lot of variation in internal anatomy between species, so I suspect that in the end we will need to have a much better understanding of how colour patterns vary within the group than we do know before we can talk sensibly about how many species there are. Photos like yours and Erwin's therefore are very valuable.
best wishes,
Bill Rudman

Rudman, W.B., 2002 (Jun 11). Comment on Erwin Koehler's N. mullineri by Nishina Masayoshi. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from

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