Cnidosac and nematocyst

Here are some relevant reference on the use of nematocysts in nudibranch defence. Any additional references would be welcome.
Return to Cnidosac Page.

•Allen, J.K. (1976) Function of nematocysts in Eolid Nudibranchs. Western Society of Malacologists Annual Report, 9: 50.
•Cargo, D.G. & Burnett, J.W. (1982) Observations on the ultrastructure and defensive behaviour of the Cnidosac of Cratena pilata. The Veliger, 24(4): 325-327.
•Conklin, E.J. & Mariscal, R.N. (1977) Feeding behaviour, Ceras structure, and nematocyst storage in the aeolid Spurilla neapolitana (Mollusca). Bulletin of Marine Science, 27(4): 658-667.
• Cuvier, G.L.C. (1805) Memoire sur la Scyllee, l'Eolide et le Glaucus avec des additions au memoires sur la Tritonie. Annales de Museum National d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, 6: 416-436, Pl 61.
•Graham, A (1938) The structure and function of the alimentary canal of aeolid molluscs with a discussion on their nematocysts. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 59: 267-307.
•Greenwood, P.G. & Mariscal, R.N. (1982): Cnidosac ultrastructure and nematocyst incorporation in the aeolid nudibranch Spurilla neapolitana. American Zoologist (Abstract), 22(40): 940.
•Greenwood, P.G. & Mariscal, R.N. (1983): Immature nematocyst development and nematocyst symbiosis in an aeolid nudibranch. American Zoologist (Abstract), 23(4): 922.
•Greenwood, P.G. & Mariscal, R.N. (1984): Immature nematocyst incorporation by the aeolid nudibranch Spurilla neapolitana. Marine Biology, 80: 35-38.
•Greenwood, P.G. & Mariscal, R.N. (1984): Nematocyst maturation In vitro: The effects of ATP on isolated nematocysts. American Zoologist (Abstract), 24(3): 31A.
•Greenwood, P.G. & Mariscal, R.N. (1984): The utilization of cnidarian nematocysts by aeolid nudibranchs: nematocyst maintenance and release in Spurilla. Tissue and Cell, 16(5): 719-730.
•Grosvenor, G.H. (1903): On the nematocysts of Aeolids. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, series B, 72(3 November): 462-486.
•Haefelfinger, H.R. (1969): Secrets of a sea slug. Reprinted from Image, Medical Photo Reports Roche: 11-14.
•Nakamura, A (1967): Electron microscopy on the ceras of an opisthobranch, Godiva ceylonica, with special reference to muscles. Biological Journal of Okayama University, 13(3-4, December): 97-113.
•Thompson, T.E. & Bennett,I (1969): Physalia nematocysts: utilized by mollusks for defense. Science 166(19 December): 1532-1533.
• Trinchese, S. (1881) Aeolididae e famiglie affini del Porto di Genova. Part 2. Anatomia, Fisiologia, Embriologia delle Phyllobranchidae, Hermaeidae, Aeolididae, Proctonotidae, Dotonidae del Porto di Genova. Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali, serie 3, 11: 1-142, Pls 1-80.
• Wright, T. S. 1859. [for 1858]. On the cnidae or thread-cells of the Eolidae. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, 2: 38-40.

Authorship details
Rudman, W.B., 2000 (February 24) Cnidosac and nematocyst . [In] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from