North atlantic coast of Europe from Norway south to Portugal and Morocco. Perhaps the Mediterranean but the taxonomy of Mediterreanean Jorunna needs clarifying.
Plompe toren, de Oosterschelde, the Netherlands. PHOTO: Peter H. van Bragt
Like all species of Jorunna the mantle has a velvety appearance caused by the dense covering of caryophyllidia, which are tubercles with an array of protruding spicules (see photos of skin of Jorunna funebris and Jorunna pantherina).
The colour, mottled browns, creams and greys, combined with the spiculose mantle texture, ensure that this dorid is well camouflaged on the encrusting siliceous sponges on whicih it lives and feeds. These include Halichondria panicea and species of Haliclona. It grows to about 60mm long.
• Thompson, T.E. & Brown, G.H. (1984) Biology of Opisthobranch Molluscs, Vol 2. Ray Society: London.
Rudman, W.B., 1999 (August 8) Jorunna tomentosa (Cuvier, 1804). [In] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/jorutome
November 18, 2009
From: Sue Scott
Note: For cross-reference I have posted 3 copies of this message. This copy deals with Jorunna sp. - Bill Rudman
I consult your very informative website from time to time to try & identify seaslugs. I'm a marine biologist normally resident in Scotland but I've been running a marine project on Tristan da Cunha for the past few years. Because the island is so isolated and geologically young it has a weird & wonderful fauna, mostly derived from waifs & strays rafted there on marine debris, both natural and manmade. Attached are 3 photos of seaslugs from Tristan, which I have tentatively identified as Tyrinna nobilis [message #22796], Doris/Anisodoris fontainei [message #22798] and Jorunna tomentosa. I'd be grateful for your expert opinion on these ids. Many of Tristan's animals also occur in Chile & Argentina, as is the case with the first two of these seaslugs. If the Jorunna is correct, it maybe came from the South African side.
Locality: Tristan da Cunha, Intertidal pools east of Harbour, British Overseas Territory, South Atlantic Ocean, 2004-2007 (dates available), Extremely exposed rocky coasts. 37 03' 50.94"S, 12 18' 43.64"W. (position derived from Google Earth; note decimal seconds) Photographer: Sue Scott
email@example.comScott, S., 2009 (Nov 18) Jorunna from Tristan da Cunha. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/22799
Certainly this looks like a species of Jorunna but without looking at its anatomy it might be difficult to identify it to species. It certainly could be J. tomentosa which is found from nthn Europe south to South Africa, but it also has similarities to Jorunna spazzola (Marcus, 1976) which was described from Brazil but has since been reported as far north as the Caribbean and across to the Mediterranean (Camacho-Garcia & Gosliner, 2008).
I am afraid the genus Jorunna is probably not the best for bio-geographical studies as I suspect it will be a while before we have the species sorted out. Unless some one offers a better idea, I think I will leave your animal as a tentative J. tomentosa.
- Camacho-Garcia, Y. E., & Gosliner, T.M., 2008. Systematic revision of Jorunna Bergh, 1876 (Nudibranchia: Discodorididae) with a morphological phylogenetic analysis. Journal of Molluscan Studies 74(2):143-181.
September 9, 2008
From: Joao Pedro Silva
Here is a large Jorunna tomentosa spawning. At first I could only notice the eggs but a closer inspection revealed there something else in there. The "fur" on the mantle really makes it look like part of the egg mass.
Locality: Peniche, 10 metres, Portugal, North Atlantic, 02 September 2007, Rocky bottom. Length: 3 cm. Photographer: Joao Pedro Tojal Loia Soares Silva.
Silva, J. P., 2008 (Sep 9) Jorunna tomentosa spawning. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/20640
Thanks Joao Pedro,
Bill RudmanRudman, W.B., 2008 (Sep 9). Comment on Jorunna tomentosa spawning by Joao Pedro Silva. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/20640
November 29, 2006
From: Alberto Piras
Here are two photos of an opisthobranch mollusc from Sardegna, that I have determined is Jorunna tomentosa, I would be pleased if you could confirm this classification
Locality: Sardinia, Italy, 2 m. Mediterranean Sea, July 1996, on algae. Length: 25 mm . Photographer: Alberto Piras
firstname.lastname@example.orgPiras, A., 2006 (Nov 29) Jorunna tomentosa from Sardinia?. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/17075
This animal certainly fits within the range we currently accept as Jorunna tomentosa. I suspect that there could be some undescribed or unrecognised species of Jorunna in the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. In 1976 Eveline Marcus described Jorunna lemchei from specimens sent to her from the west coast of Ireland but whether these animals are truly a separate species has never been confirmed.
- Marcus, E. (1976) On Kentrodoris and Jorunna (Gastropoda Opisthobranchia). Boletim de Zoologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo 1: 11-68.
August 11, 2006
From: Judith Oakley
Have been busy doing some marina surveys recently and came across a couple more sea slugs. Thought this must be Jorunna tomentosa, although the brown spots weren't very obvious. It was on Ulva lactuca.
Locality: Mayflower marina, Plymouth, UK, 07 August 2006, Marina pontoon on Ulva lactuca. Length: 4cm. Photographer: Judith Oakley.
email@example.comOakley, J.A., 2006 (Aug 11) Jorunna tomentosa from Plymouth, UK. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/17385
Yes this is Jorunna tomentosa. As in most species of the genus, the darker speckling on the mantle is sometimes more obvious than others, even in the same animal
April 21, 2006
From: Tancredi D'Onofrio
Is this Jorunna tomentosa?
About 4 cm, with dark spots (4-6) on the sides of the mantle.
Locality: Gulf of Trieste, 5 m., Italy, Northern Adriatic, Jan.-Feb. 2005. Length: 4 cm. Photographer: Tancredi D'Onofrio.
firstname.lastname@example.orgD'Onofrio, T., 2006 (Apr 21) Jorunna tomentosa from the Adriatic. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/16325
Yes I think this is Jorunna tomentosa, but I would appreciate some comments from local experts. I have included a close-up of the mantle, just in case.
October 3, 2005
From: Mehmet Baki Yokes
Dear Bill and Aziz,
Concerning message #14848:
In summer, Jorunna tomentosa is commonly observed around the coasts of Istanbul (Sea of Marmara) on rocky surface, below 20 m of depth. The individuals seen on the photo looks very much alike with the ones I have examined, and I also think that they are Jorunna tomentosa.
email@example.comYokes, M.B., 2005 (Oct 3) Re: Is this a Jorunna species?. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/14904
October 1, 2005
From: Tom Turk
Here is another photo taken in front of Marine Biological Station in Piran, Slovenia. It is probably Jorunna tomentosa crawling on a sponge Chondrilla nucula.
Locality: Piran, Slovenia, Adriatic Sea. Spring 2005. muddy, some rocks and algae. Photographer: Tihomir Makovec
firstname.lastname@example.orgTurk, T., 2005 (Oct 1) Dorid from Slovenia . [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/14888
I also think this is Jorunna tomentosa. The close-up alongside shows the spiculate tubercles [caryophyllidia] which give the mantle its 'furry' appearance, and hence the name 'tomentosa', from hairy in Latin.
September 29, 2005
From: Aziz Saltik
These nudibranchs were photographed by me in my hometown Istanbul, Turkey, on Prince's Islands.
Locality: Prince's Islands, Istanbul, Turkey, Sea of Marmara. Depth: 20 meters. Length: 4-5 cm. 17 July 2005. Cold water, poor visibility, rocky bottom. Photographer: Aziz T. Saltik
It was cold and with very poor visibility. I think they are a Jorunna species but have doubts, will be grateful if you could help me in identifying them.
Aziz T. Saltik.
email@example.comSaltik, A.T., 2005 (Sep 29) Is this a Jorunna species?. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/14848
Certainly the shape of the animals in the upper photos, where they are clustered together and the shape of their gills, and their 'furry' mantle, clearly visible in the second photo, suggest a species of Jorunna, probably Jorunna tomentosa. However there are other similar looking dorid species in the Mediterranean so I hope someone familiar with the fauna can confirm my identification or suggest a better one,
March 2, 2004
From: Joao Pedro Silva
I found this nudibranch last weekend in Baleal, Portugal. At first it looked like Cadlina pellucida but the rhinophores were not so dark. Also there were so markings on the body which didn't fit Cadlina pelucida's description. It was aprox. 1cm long, maybe less.
At this moment I have absolutely no idea of what this may be. Could it be some other species of the Cadlina genus?
All the best,
firstname.lastname@example.orgSilva, J.P., 2004 (Mar 2) Jorunna tomentosa from Portugal. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/12350
Dear Joao Pedro,
Form the 'furry' nature of the mantle this is almost certainly a species of Rostanga or Jorunna. Form its colour I am pretty sure itis the common Jorunna tomentosa.
June 11, 2003
From: Peter H. van Bragt
Hello Marina and Bill,
This is for sure a J. tomentosa. The typical furry mantle texture and the few dark spots on the site are indicative for this species.
email@example.com Bragt, P.H., 2003 (Jun 11) Re: Jorunna tomentosa from French Brittany. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/10176
June 6, 2003
From: Alma Sanchez
Dear Marina and Dr. Rudman,
Definitely, this animal is Jorunna tomentosa.
June 5, 2003
From: Marina Poddubetskaia
I found this dorid during my diving week-end in Mont Saint-Michel Bay. Could you confirm it is Jorunna tomentosa, please? Sorry for these bad photos, I was able to make better.
Date: April 19, 2003
Location: Saint-Malo, France, Atlantic coast
Photos: Marina Poddubetskaia - Nembro website
firstname.lastname@example.orgPoddubetskaia, M., 2003 (Jun 5) Jorunna tomentosa from French Brittany. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/9769
I would agree with your indentification, but as I tend to call all these 'furry' animals from Europe Jorunna tomentosa I think I will wait for confirmation from someone with firsthand experience of the Atlantic fauna
November 28, 2002
From: Peter H. van Bragt
Alma Sanchez's educated guess to call this Dorid seaslug Jorunna tomentosa seems to me quite realistic. Obviously we see insufficient details of the animal on the picture to be 100% sure. The brown markings on the side and the texture of the mantle seem to indicate that this is correct. Also this animal was found well within it known West-European distribution range: Faeroes to the Mediterranean (Picton, 1994)
Peter H. van Bragt
November 23, 2002
From: Alma Sanchez
Dear Dr. Rudman and Miquel,
I think Miquel's animal is Jorunna tomentosa. Here is one photo of a juvenile specimen of this species collected in the Strait of Gibraltar (Southern Spain) showing several aspects of its external anatomy and coloration such as a mantle covered with caryophyllidia and brown spots
email@example.comSanchez, A., 2002 (Nov 23) Re: Unidentified dorid from Spain. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/8472
I tend to agree with you. Photos which don't show any esential features are very difficult to be sure about, although to local experts they are often quite obvious.
November 23, 2002
From: Constantine Mifsud
It's hard to be sure when you can't see any characteristic features. I thought I could see the gill pocket in the lower part of the photo. You could be right, but I tend to agree with Alma's suggestion that it is Jorunna tomentosa.
November 21, 2002
From: Miquel Pontes
We found an unidentified dorid(?) attached below a rock in less than 1 meter of water at Cadaqués, Costa Brava, Spain [Mediterranean coast]. We would be grateful if you can supply clues to identify it.
Picture by Albert Ollé.
firstname.lastname@example.orgPontes, M., 2002 (Nov 21) Unidentified dorid from Spain. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/8380
I'm afraid I can't help. Hopefully one of the many opisthobranch workers in that part of the world can give us an idea
June 22, 2002
From: Philipp Schubert
Hi, Dr. Rudman.
I´m a German student from Helgoland, [North Sea, Germany] gathering Nudibranchs for my thesis. Yesterday I found a species, which I can´t define for sure using two books available to me (Synopses: Benthic Opisthobranchs by Thompson and Marine Fauna by Hayward and Ryland). Is it Aldisa zetlandica perhaps??
We found it diving in 5m depth on a harbour wall on no specific substratum, but sponges were present, also lot of Clavelina ascidians. The mantle looks smooth, but it bears thousands of very small papillae. The gills are retractable and the rhinophores are nearly invisible, the mantle is very ample, the anus is pumping weirdly...
Please help, I´m nearly desperate...;-)
email@example.comSchubert, P., 2002 (Jun 22) Unknown dorid from Helgoland, Germany. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/7327
Aldisa zetlandica has large conical tubercles on its back. The 'furry' texture on the back of this animal suggests a species of Rostanga or Jorunna. The only likely species in your part of the world would be Jorunna tomentosa, which ranges in colour from a pale off-white to a dirty brown, usually with scattered darker spots or patches. A colour variety, which was described as a distinct species, Jorunna lemchei Marcus, 1976, [but usually considered as synonym of J. tomentosa], looks much like your animal in having scattered pale spots. There are good colour illustrations of 'Jorunna lemchei' in Just & Lemche (1985).
I could of course be wrong, but if so, I am sure one of our European colleagues will let us know.
• Just, H. & Edmunds, M. North Atlantic Nudibranchs (Mollusca) seen by Henning Lemche. Ophelia: Supplement 2. Ophelia Publications: Helsingor. 170pp.
January 23, 2002
From: Jean-Pierre Bielecki
Here is another species looking like an Archidoris pseudoargus but I am not sure. Thanks again for your help.
Date: March, 12th 2001
Dive place: Sète (Mediterranean coast of France)
Dive site: Etang de Thau
Bielecki, JP., 2002 (Jan 23) Jorunna tomentosa from southern France. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/5942
If you look at the 'furry' nature of the skin this is almost certainly Jorunna tomentosa.
August 11, 1999
From: Peter H. van Bragt
Location: Plompe Toren, de Oosterschelde, the Netherlands
Met vriendelijke groeten
(With best regards)
Peter H. van Bragt
Peter.vanBragt@ftn.hsbrabant.nlvan Bragt, P.H., 1999 (Aug 11) Jorunna tomentosa from the Netherlands. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/1168