Haminoea callidegenita or H. japonica

October 26, 2006
From: Dave Behrens

Hi Bill:

Per your request [following message #17553], here is what I know about the Haminoea callidegenita situation here. Although not officially published yet in a refereed journal, a couple of web sites have reported Haminoea callidegenita Gibson & Chia, 1989a as a junior synonym of Haminoea japonica Pilsbry (also reported as Haloa japonica). This situation will be remedied soon with the publication of a full anatomical comparison of H. callidegenita and H. japonica (Gosliner & Behrens, in prep.). In this paper specimens from both Japan and the eastern Norht Pacific are examined.

Until that surfaces, here are photos of this species from Lake Merritt (a finger of), San Francisco Bay, California. You will notice, as Sandra's message [#7141] points out, externally H. japonica (= H. callidegenita) has a deeply bifurcate posterior edge to the headshield, seen in these photos. Internally the species are identical, and differ dramatically from H. virescens and H. vesicula.

I wish I had paid more attention to the eggs these specimens were laying, but I believe these are the direct development eggs described by Gibson & Chia. This species seems to be widely distributed as reported by Alvarez, Martinez, Cigarria, Rolan & Villani (1993).

  • Alvarez, L.A., Martínez ,E., Cigarria, J., Rolán, E. and Villani, G., (1993) Haminaea callidegenita Gibson & Chia, 1989 (Opisthobranchia: Cephalaspidea), a Pacific species introduced in European coasts. Iberus, 11(2): 59-65.
  • Gibson, G.D. and Chia, F.S. (1989). Description of a new species of Haminoea, Haminoea callidegenita (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia), with a comparison with two other Haminoea species found in the northeast Pacific. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 67: 914-922.
  • Gibson G. D. and Chia F.S., 1995. Development variability in the poecilogonous opisthobranch Haminoea calledegenita: life history traits and effects of environmental parameters. Marine Ecology - Progress Series, 121(1-3): 139-155.   
  • Marín A., Alvarez L.A., Cimino G. and Spinella A., 1999. Chemical defense in Cephalaspidean Gastropods: origin, anatomical location and ecological roles. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 65: 121-131. 

Dave Behrens


Behrens, D.W., 2006 (Oct 26) Haminoea callidegenita or H. japonica. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/17702

Thanks Dave,
Bill Rudman


Haminoea japonica