UPPER: Negros Is, Philippines. Size: smaller than 1 cm, depth 9m.
LOWER LEFT: Negros Is, Philippines, dive site called "Dauin", size 15mm, depth 7m, nightdive.
LOWER RIGHT: Negros Is, Philippines, dive site called "Sara's Place", size 4 cm, depth 14 m.
PHOTOS: Erwin Koehler.
These three animals were photographed by Erwin Koehler, at Negros Is, Philippines, Oct-Nov 1998. I am not sure if they are all the same species. They all have similarities to two species, Nembrotha? rubroocellata and Nembrotha rubropapulosa described by Bergh (1905) in the report of the Siboga Expedition, but both those names almots certainly refer to Roboastra gracilis. Further photos accompany Erwin's messages below. Any ideas welcome.
Some messages on this page identified as Nembrotha guttata and moved to that page ... July 2001.
Rudman, W.B., 1999 (January 5) Nembrotha spp? [In] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/nembsp3
May 14, 2010
From: Stewart L. Sy
Hi Dr. Rudman
I photographed this nudibranch in the Philippines in January of 2008. The dive guide said that he's only seen it on this particular coral, and I'm guessing that the inset photo is a juvenile. I've combed through my id book 1001 Nudibranchs and I couldn't find it. All I can maybe say is that is a dorid. ??
Locality: Manila Channel, Puerto Galera, 15 meters, give or take, Oriental Mindoro, Philippines, 12 Jan 2008, On Soft Coral. Length: larger, 1", smaller, 5mm. Photographer: Stewart L. Sy.
Just hoped you'd satisfy my curiosity.
email@example.comSy, S. L., 2010 (May 14) Adult & Juvenile (?) Nembrotha. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/23626
I am pretty sure these two are different species. I am afraid we can't say much more about them at present.
January 13, 2009
From: Ken Tucker
Concerning message #21144:
Here is another of the same 'species' from Sulawesi.
Locality: Lembeh Strait, 18 metres, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, Celebes Sea, 27 Dec 08. Length: 3 mm. Photographer: Ken Tucker.
firstname.lastname@example.orgTucker, K., 2009 (Jan 13) Re: A red-spotted Nembrotha. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/22129
I can't see a quick answer for this group, but every new photo helps to clarify the range of variation.
March 20, 2008
From: David Abecasis
Concerning message #21114:
Couldn't this be the same species that I photographed in Northern Mozambique?
email@example.comAbecasis, D., 2008 (Mar 20) Re: Nembrotha livingstonei from South Africa. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/21461
I knew I had seen a sphoto of an animal like Colin's recently. Yes this well illustrates my point that we still have a few things to sort out with these animals with reddish spots. For consistency I'll move his message to the Nembrotha spppage
March 19, 2008
From: Colin Ogden
I notice you don't have a report on the forum for a Nembrotha livingstonei from South Africa, though Gosliner does have it in his book. Here is a picture of one I found yesterday, and also a pic of a juvenile I found 2 years ago. It was only about 3 mm in size so the quality is not so good. The structure it was sitting on I believe was its food source (as a juvenile), because I found another on on the same structure a couple of months later. Would a nudibranch change its food source during its development?
Locality: Sodwana Bay, 14 metres, South Africa, Indian, 11 November 2007, reef. Length: 35 mm. Photographer: Colin Ogden.
firstname.lastname@example.orgOgden C. M., 2008 (Mar 19) Nembrotha livingstonei from South Africa. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/21114
I think this is probably N. livingstonei although I woud normally expect to see a white cross between the rhinophores, or some traces of one. Perhaps in the western Indian Ocean that part of the colour pattern is lost. I think we still have a bit to do in sorting out the red-spotted species so keep your eyes out for other variations.
Concerning species changing food as they develop. Once a species settles from the plankton they begin feeding on their adult food. In many cases it is chemicals from the adult food which trigger the settlement behaviour in the swimming planktonic larvae. Obviously in species where the adults eat whole polyps, the juveniles can't do the same, but they seem to eat other parts of the colony, rather than a different food. In species of Nembrotha we would expect them to eat one or more ascidians.
March 7, 2008
From: David Abecasis
I found this small nudibranch on one of my last dives. I am having a hard time to ID it. Do you have any idea?
Locality: Quirimbas archipelago, 8 meters, Mozambique, Indian Ocean, 29 October 2007, Coral reef. Length: ~15mm. Photographer: David Abecasis.
email@example.comAbecasis, D., 2008 (Mar 7) A red-spotted Nembrotha and N. yonowae. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/21144
My best answer to your question about whether I can identify this animal is 'yes and no'. If you look at the Nembrotha spp page you will see a group of reddish spotted animals I haven't been able to put a name on, and many of them [see #19534], but not all of them, seem to be the same species as yours. I have kept them separate from the ones I have identified as Nembrotha guttata. But I am not even sure about that species and have some separated as Nembrotha cf. guttata. Some animals have a distinct orange cap to the rhinophore club and an orange margin around the rhinophore sheath while others don't. Some, like yours, have white rhinophore sheaths and white edging to the gills etc etc.
I am afraid I don't think the recent Nembrotha paper (Pola et al, 2008) has resolved this problem and as they say in their discussion "the internal anatomy of the species complex nigerrima-cristata-yonowae is very similar" so we are apparently not likely to find a simple answer in the basic anatomy.
To complicate matters there is also a nomenclatural problem - that is a question about what names we should use as well as how many species there are and how we should identify them. Pola et al, propose we replace Nembrotha guttata Yonow, 1993 with N. yonowae Goethel & Debelius, 1992 considering them both to be the same. When Yonow described her species she deliberately stated that the description of N. yonowae was so poor, and lacked a type specimen, and so was unable to be distinguished from other red-spotted species. Even if at that time the International Code did not require there to be a type specimen deposited, if there is no available specimen how do you check to see just which red-spotted species they were describing? As you can see here, there are probably more than one species involved. So on those grounds she described her species as distinct. In Pola et al there are three colour photos identified as N. yonowae, one of which (Fig 14A) looks like what I am calling N. guttata, but the other two (Fig 14B,C) look more like your animal. They also have another photo (Fig 14 D) of a red-spotted animal which they identify as Nembrotha sp. and which looks like others on my miscellaneous red-spotted page. I mention this because it suggests the author's are not clear themselves on just what constitutes what they call Nembrotha yonowae. If that is the case it seems premature to synonymise that name and N. guttata as they might both turn out to be valid species.
At the moment I am trying to get a copy of the Goethel & Debelius description of N. yonowae. It was published in a non-scientific journal and I have until now been unable to find a copy. So basically I can't identify your animal at present. As Pola et. al say "further morphological and molecular studies need to be done to fully resolve these issues"
- Pola, M., Cervera, J.L. and Gosliner, T.M. 2008. Revision of the Indo-Pacific genus Nembrotha (Nudibranchia: Dorididae: Polyceridae), with description of two new species. Scientia Marina 72(1): 145-183.
February 28, 2007
From: Brian Francisco
Locality: Tasi Toly, 18 meters , East Timor, Banda Sea, 24 February 2007, sandy slope. Length: 8 mm. Photographer: Brian Francisco.
firstname.lastname@example.orgFrancisco, B., 2007 (Feb 28) Nembrotha spp, from East Timor. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/19534
Yes it certainly looks the same. There still seems to be some work needed on these red-spotted nembrothids.
December 11, 2006
From: Joy Go
Concerning message #18711:
Attached is another photo of the subject, Nembrotha, showing the gills. I'm also trying to figure out from the photo if it has 2 or 3 gills.
email@example.comGo, J.D., 2006 (Dec 11) Re: Two-gilled Slug?. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/18973
I guess this is one we are not going to be able to answer.
December 1, 2006
From: Joy D. Go
A friend referred me to your site. Can you please help me identify the slug on this photo that I took a week ago? It seems to have two gills.
Locality: Baul Island, Guiuan, 10-15 meters, Philippines, Leyte Gulf, 21 November 2006, Wall. Length: Approximately 1.5 to 2 inches. Photographer: Joy D. Go.
I haven't found this on any of my references, so any help in identification would be appreciated.
Joy D. Go
firstname.lastname@example.orgGo, J.D., 2006 (Dec 1) Two-gilled Slug?. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/18711
This is unnamed species of Nembrotha which I am clustering with a number of similarly coloured red/orange-spotted species. Yours is almost certainly the one in a recent message [#18238] which has 3 large branched gills. Your animal, apparently with only 2 gills, is either damaged, or one of its gills is obscured in your photo.
November 8, 2006
From: Ugo Gaggeri
Concerning message #441:
Here is another orange spotted Nembrotha that I found in Bunaken Park.
Locality: Bunaken Park, about 20 meters, Indonesia, Celebes Sea, end of December 2006. Length: about 15 mm. Photographer: Ugo Gaggeri.
email@example.comGaggeri, U., 2006 (Nov 8) Re: Nembrotha from Philippines. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/18238
Thanks very much. This is clearly the same animal as Erwin Koehler's photographed earlier [message #441]. From the shape of the gills it is definitely not a colour form of Roboastra gracilis.
May 22, 2002
From: Gareth Jones
Hi Dr. Rudman.
Here is another puzzle from New Zealand. It was about 3mm long and seen at 8m. It was also from the Poor Knights Islands [north-eastern New Zealand].
firstname.lastname@example.orgJones, G., 2002 (May 22) Polycerid from New Zealand. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/6988
This is another interesting find. Almost certainly a tropical visitor. I am afraid these reddish spotted polycerids are a bit of a mess to idntify at present. Your animal look very like one in Stuart Hutchison's photos from Papua New Guinea. So if you want a label for it I am afraid 'polycerid sp' might be as far as I am willing to go at present.
April 11, 2001
From: Kirk Gibson
This nudibranch was photographed by me in Exmouth, northern Western Australia in 14m of water. Length 10cm
email@example.comGibson, K., 2001 (Apr 11) Red-spotted Nembrotha? from Exmouth, WA. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/4115
I am not sure whether this is a species of Nembrotha or not. There appear to be a number of similarly coloured species which need sorting out. I have placed them together on a red-spotted Nembrotha page.
March 22, 2000
From: Stuart Hutchison
Here two tiny 4mm long subjects photographed some miles apart in March/April, 1999 in Milne Bay, PNG. Very enlarged and underdeveloped image. Both were found in about 15m of water and were photographed at 1:1 then digitally enlarged for you. The grains of sand give away its size!
firstname.lastname@example.orgHutchison, S., 2000 (Mar 22) Polycera from Papua New Guinea. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/1757
These are almost certainly juveniles. They are one of a group of orange-spotted nembrothid species I have grouped on one page more for convenience than belief they are a single species. I suspect your animals are most like the Top Right photo at the Top of the Page.
We will need some animals to look at before they can be sorted out.
January 5, 1999
From: Erwin Koehler
here is the next one from Negros Is, Philippines, Oct-Nov 1998. Size: less than 1 cm, depth 9m.
E.Koehler@deutschepost.deKoehler, E., 1999 (Jan 5) Nembrotha from Philippines. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/441
It seems to be feeding on the blue-green ascidian it is sitting on. Concerning identification - have a look at my comment at the top of the page.
January 5, 1999
From: Erwin Koehler
A third Nembrotha from Negros Is, Philippines, dive site called "Sara's Place", size 4 cm, depth 14 m.
E.Koehler@deutschepost.deKoehler, E., 1999 (Jan 5) And another Nembrotha from Philippines. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/find/443
This is probably a third species.